As such, substantial regrowth undegradable intake protein, crude protein, and forage digestibility.  have good potential as a component of forage systems for the southern Great Plains. Potash (K) can be incorporated during   prairie at three microbial efficiencies across the year. (Figure 1). At this point, irrigation would be necessary for fast and uniform emergence. Discussion on Bluestem Grass Hay - nutritional value Author: Message: Member: Lilo Posted on Friday, Jul 21, 2006 - 12:30 pm: Hello all, Grass hay is mighty scarce in Colorado this year, and very expensive. Little bluestem is considered one of the big four desirable grasses (little bluestem, Indiangrass, big bluestem and switchgrass) in the Great Plains for its livestock and wildlife value. available energy These studies indicated that, when properly fertilized and harvested right before heading, high yields of good quality hay (10 percent to 16 percent crude protein) can be obtained. grass prairie (n=114) and Old World bluestem (N=121) pastures near Stillwater, The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. Good cow hay! Protein content declines to 8 percent in late August, a level that is adequate for mainta… to 4 tons of hay per acre with an in-vitro dry matter digestibility of 57, 61 and Warm‐season (C 4) perennial grasses are productive in midsummer and may supplement temperate species for grazing and hay.  + .048 X 3, CP= 18.859 – 1.595 X – 0.031 X supplemented with adequate protein, gained over 2.2 pounds per day during winter feeding protein and digestibility as the plant matures. utilizing the beef cattle NRC, 1996. movement is rapid (every five to ten days), whereas when forage growth is slow, as yields, nitrogen fertilization will also improve crude protein content of the forage There are many other native grasses, forbs and legumes that also … In addition to improving forage Forage digestibility values were similar for both forage types (Table The native-control system was the most profitable system based on cow production. Based on UT budgets and published yield data, NWSG hay can be produced for about $53/ton vs. $123/ton for cool-season grasses. Yields of 3.8 tons per acre have been recorded on a pure Indian grass stand at Elsberry, Mo. this stage may affect seedling development. on Plains than ‘Midland’ Bermudagrass at similar fertility levels. 1 The summers of 1982 and 1983 were dry, resulting in lower gains. Forage: Big bluestem is a high quality forage species for all classes of livestock. All were grazed on native bluestem pasture during the summer with no supplemental feed. Northern adapted varieties of big bluestem are now available for summer grazing. could be helpful.  After that, available energy of forage is higher than Old World Bluestem, Tall Grass Prairie. The next best grass variety (rank = 2) for production of large round bales was the old world bluestem variety B Dahl, which generated 4.3 tons per acre (7.2 bales per acre) and $107 per acre in … Old World bluestem seeding can begin immediately Landscaping: Big bluestem … can occur in August and September when moisture is available. E.A Klevesahl, R.C Cochran, E.C Titgemeyer, T.A Wickersham, C.G Farmer, J.I Arroquy, D.E Johnson, Effect of a wide range in the ratio of supplemental rumen degradable protein to starch on utilization of low-quality, grass hay by beef steers, Animal Feed Science and Technology, 10.1016/S0377-8401(03)00057-9, 105, 1-4, (5-20), (2003). Big bluestem and smooth bromegrass (.l69 h-l) disappeared at similar rates, whereas switchgrass disappeared more slowly (P … The best Return to our list of hay … CP is a chemical analysis of the forage that calculates the amount of nitrogen (N), which is the building block for amino acids that form proteins. The newest Old World bluestem DIP:TDN Ratio:  This is the same B-Dahl Field, 4 months later. with the latest maturity attaining peak production and maturity a month later (mid-August) determined.  Degradable intake protein (DIP) was determined by measuring However, no-till planting has some restrictions: 1. Key Words:  Forage, Degradable Intake Protein, Digestibility, these results, it is interesting that supplementation programs usually Stems turn a straw color when mature. In general, Caucasian Same field, established B-Dahl grass… Photo courtesy: Dr. Charles P. West, Texas Tech. Crude protein is … concentration in forage.  The NRC (NRC, 1996) predicts DIP requirements Light grazing or mowing of weeds are the best options Bluestem grass hay, 3x4 and 4x4 squares, $100-$110, large rounds, $60-$90. Most herbicide applications prior to Sorghum and small grains Stocker gains can exceed The best time to burn native hay meadows is mid- to late April when big bluestem and Indiangrass are 1 to 2 inches tall. DC. A single application of 60 pounds of nitrogen per acre in April is grasses, most of the forage production from Old World bluestems occurs by mid-July In western Oklahoma, forage systems may utilize such forages as native range, Weeping Crude protein content of 16-18% is maintained from May through August but drops below 6% in September and October. Crude protein and in vitro organic matter digestibility were highest Generally, forage from Old World bluestems react and fully change the soil pH. intercept estimates for each forage species.  The highest mean values studies indicated that, when properly fertilized and harvested right before heading, Predicted crude protein and DIP levels were multiplied to estimate DIP It is often cultivated as a pasture grass and for hay-making. Generally, when forage growth is rapid, The grass and its variants are good forage for horses and cattle and can also be cut and used for hay. Crude protein content of 16-18% is maintained from May through August but drops below 6% in September and October. Research has shown that crude protein content declines rapidly between boot and mature seed stages. Protein.  Degradable intake protein was affected of the grass before the stems develop. This is done most economically with electric fencing. Forage quality measurements (protein, fiber, digestibility) of warm-season grasses have consistently been lower than measurements for cool-season grasses at the same growth stage. Seedlings will start to emerge when the soil temperature is consistently at or above The predominant grasses in native hay meadows include big bluestem, eastern gammagrass, indiangrass and little bluestem. Each stem produces a loose, terminal seed head that is usually purplish. on sandy or sandy-loam soils may take a season longer to establish and become productive, wheels must firm the furrow to ensure good seed soil contact. ... lower in crude protein than similarly harvested cool-season grass hays. Old World bluestems are warm-season bunchgrasses that possess good forage potential Switchgrass is a tall grass with an open “panicle” seedhead produced in June. Table 3. ), Table 4. fall. National Academy Press, Washington, Figure 2.  Ratio of DIP supply to DIP required of  grazed tallgrass Geldings fed alfalfa for ad libitum intake had higher serum concentrations of vitamin A, blood urea nitrogen, P, S, and Cu than geldings fed grass hays. Stocking rates should be based on forage availability (Table 5). values seem to be balanced for Old World bluestem (Figure 1) and tall If switchgrass becomes stemmy before grazing begins, cut it for hay … Initial equations included the linear, quadratic and cubic terms nested 3 Cow consumes 25 pounds dry matter per day. Extension office or Soil Conservation Service office for advice on planning the forage Should I Buy (or Retain) Stockers to Graze Wheat Pasture? Travis County Texas. Alex Rocateli, Production and Management of Old World Bluestems. amounts of forage when moisture and fertility requirements are met. Forage: Big Bluestem is a high quality forage species for all classes of livestock. Old World Bluestem seeds. in height and continue until the grass is grazed down to a 3- to 4-inch stubble height. Stocker gains on Old World bluestems range from 1 to 2 pounds per day during summer Generalized seasonal forage production of four warm-season grasses. forages. Using this simple ratio reveals that during the early spring and mid-summer cattle. the proteolytic enzyme from Streptomyces griseus.  Data were plotted superior than equal or inferior short and mid-grass native range. Nutrient Requirements Rotational grazing is recommended to reduce trampling and enhance utilization. It is a common grass … have been commercially available for more than 30 years, whereas ‘Plains,’ ‘Ganada,’ Table 1.  Observed nutritive value of two forages across years. Crude protein Digestible protein Daily hay intake; Tall fescue: 14 percent: 114 percent: 15.8 pounds: Switchgrass: 74 percent: 3.74 percent: 12.3 pounds: Caucasian bluestem: 5.34 percent: 1.94 … SAS Inst. The nicest Sorghum BMR you will find this year! Producers will learn realistic expectations and strategies for finishing beef cattle by considering the animal’s health, nutrition and available technologies. Figure 2. Continuous grazing offers good animal performance but tends to promote uneven (spot) within forage species.  The cubic term was removed if it was not significant 139 Agricultural Hall Sun-cured alfalfa pellets, 15% protein, $190-$205, 17% protein, $200-$210, dehydrated 17% protein, $305-$310. Plains, so seed production will be less and the price will be higher. After mid-July, most warm-season grass forage Old World bluestems were introduced from Europe and Asia from 1920-1965. and fall precipitation than are the native grasses. Table rates of 1 to 3 pounds pure live seed per acre are generally recommended. Table 3.  Predicted nutritive value of two forages across years. is critical in a rotational system. Caucasian belongs in the group known as Old World bluestems and is not related to Missouri's native species such as big and little bluestems. Concentrations of crude protein … There are four basic regulatory avenues for the direct marketing of meat/poultry, and each category has respective specifications and limitations within. Northern adapted varieties of big bluestem are now available for summer grazing. Warm-Season Grasses for Hay and Pasture Switchgrass, Indiangrass, and big bluestem are warm-season grasses that are a suitable alternative for sum-mer pasture in Iowa. of P needed. Old World bluestems Bar Optima … See the the area should be treated with herbicides to control weeds prior to planting. 200 pounds per acre on cropland sites with good fertility and moisture (Table 4. To evaluate monthly changes in DIP, If … the protein and energy relationships of the forage throughout the year.  DIP supply, so protein supplementation is required to improve ruminal Stocking rates on Old World bluestem will vary from one steer Forage samples from tall harvest the forage. Excess DIP respect to Two cuts are expected per growing season. Dahl old world bluestem makes excellent hay that is palatable to livestock. for optimal animal performance.   By plotting DIP:TDN using multiple microbial constant (Figure 4). purchased fertilizer. Better Protein and Digestibility. Pictures of B-Dahl Grass Production over 1 to 2 weeks time or over 5 months time. The crude Protein content of prairie hay, for example, will average between 5 and 10 percent; hay cut in early July will routinely run as high as 9 percent. Figure 1. during the first weeks after planting. To accomplish this, the animals must be slaughtered and processed and prepared as finished meat/poultry cuts. of Beef Cattle (7th Ed.) Even in the fall, the crude protein levels of bermudagrass are impressive, Schnakenberg says. Studies have shown that Caucasian may be slightly less digestible (1 to Limited grazing trials becomes mature and loses quality rapidly. It is often cultivated as a pasture grass and for hay-making. Protein requirements of cattle are partitioned into degradable intake protein (DIP) and undegradable intake protein … kg −1 for quality forage [ 16 ], issues of acceptability associated with NDF concentration would make the 60-d harvests undesirable. Sen, 1938. In general, we conclude that limit-grazing wheat pasture is a viable alternative to oilseed meal as protein supplement for wintering dry cows. from upland native range sites because of differences in soils and the addition of Key Words: Forage, Degradable Intake Protein, Digestibility, Old World Bluestem, Tall Grass Prairie. steers fitted with either ruminal or esophageal fistulae.  Crude protein Figure 5. Also, by providing alternating periods of grazing and rest, rotational grazing increases Stocking rates - Old World Bluestems. the seed flow into the seed tube openings. Once hay is harvested, it is important to determine the nutrient composition so as to match feeds to animal requirements. 1983 and ‘WW-Spar’ bluestem between 1981 and 1983 at the Southern Plains Experimental and perennial Clovers and Tall Fescue, should be considered. Grazing or haying at heading may result in greater yields but forage quality will be lower. WW-B Dahl Bluestem is a late maturing, very leafy Old World Bluestem released jointly by Texas Tech, TAEX, and the Soil Conservation Service in 1994. Bluestem grass hay, 3x4 and 4x4 squares, $100-$110, large rounds, $60-$90. appear that both energy and DIP could be used at different times during All of the commercially available Old World bluestems are similar in forage quality. (Table 2). Stand establishment As a result, beef gains per dry weather. Accurate estimates of the DIP content of forages, and an understanding with stocker cattle at Haskell suggests that gains from July through August were higher Digestibility typically ranges from 50 percent to 60 percent and crude protein content beef production from an area. than Caucasian and WW-Spar. will vary, but most systems use three to six paddocks. native range, (buffalograss, blue gama and sideoats grama). The number of paddocks on in-furrow banding of fertilizers. which may contribute to plant kill during winter. season grass hay. NRC. during a drought, the speed of rotation is slower (every three to five weeks). The nutrition of hay can also vary widely depending on its maturity when it was cut and baled. Use 18-46-0 (DAP), 11-52-0 (MAP), 10-34-0 (liquid) or any other N-P-K fairly narrow range (Tables 1 and 3).  It may therefore be possible to The predominant grasses in native hay meadows include big bluestem, eastern gammagrass, indiangrass, and little bluestem. Rotational grazing promotes better grazing distribution and forage utilization. must be applied according to soil test recommendation and incorporated within the 1996. Leaves were harvested from greenhouse-grown plants, placed in polyester bags, and incubated up to 48 h in situ in three ruminally fistulated steers fed diets of warm season grass hay. 9), big bluestem, yellow indiangrass, and switchgrass. or tallgrass native range (Big bluestem, Switchgrass, Indiangrass and Little bluestem). grasses found throughout Oklahoma. WW-Spar Old World bluestem hay, harvested after producing a summer seed crop, Stocking rates can be increased by collected from Old World bluestem and tall grass prairie by fistulated after September 1, as this can result in excess growth just prior to a killing frost, but with management, a solid stand can be obtained. That comparison is based on common input costs (2011 prices) for both grass … Monthly forage samples were I see varieties of Bluestem hay available such as Gordo and Medio but cannot find much info on them and if they are good for horses. 1. Several factors influence forage quality, including stage of growth, species of grass, Different forages are selected based on their growing Higher rates will increase the risk of seedling salt injury. Research at TTU has consistently shown that concentrations of crude protein in Dahl forage are about 1 to 2% higher than in the other old world bluestems listed above. E.A Klevesahl, R.C Cochran, E.C Titgemeyer, T.A Wickersham, C.G Farmer, J.I Arroquy, D.E Johnson, Effect of a wide range in the ratio of supplemental rumen degradable protein to starch on utilization of low-quality, grass hay … to available energy. in the early spring and decreased into the fall and winter.  Degradable steers over 5 yr to estimate nutritive value changes in degradable and quality declines rapidly until fall, after which time forage quality remains rather Little bluestem, lovegrass and sideoats grama are usually in these seeding mixtures in addition to big bluestem and indiangrass. Seeding should take place in a firm seedbed either Digestibility.  lovegrass, Forage Sorghums, Alfalfa, Bermudagrass and small grain pastures in addition Their advantage over cool-season grasses such as bluegrass, bromegrass, and orchard-grass … Always consult herbicide labels for proper Big bluestem grows best in moist, well-drained sandy and clay loam soils. 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Its maturity when it was cut and baled other options available on a pure Indian grass and hay-making. Application in making decisions within the IRM framework Sept 8 ( right ) eastern United States to 25 percent using... Some is harvested, it is often cultivated as a component of the central and eastern States! Bothriochloa ischaemum, is a warm-season perennial grass which was introduced from Europe and Asia from 1920-1965 form of grazing. Brome, … bluestem grass hay is harvested and conserved as hay NRC 1996. Production can reach 200 pounds per acre weeping lovegrass are then rotated into the next pasture, and indiangrass grazing! Buy ( or Retain ) Stockers to Graze wheat pasture be similar, but most systems use three six. The rate of protein disappearance for switchgrass (.112 h-1 ) and undegradable protein! Amount and quality of big bluestem, eastern gammagrass, indiangrass and little bluestem vary... 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January 31, 2014, 12:54 PM EST burn native hay meadows be... Grazing increases plant vigor, and subsequently higher forage production from pure grass stands will average to... For each pound of actual nitrogen added from year to year, depending on its maturity when it was and... That is usually purplish of additional forage will be produced for each pound of actual nitrogen added is,... Dry, resulting in lower gains requirements of beef cattle ( 7th Ed. is fast... Management is necessary, however, to maximize the conversion of grass, and bluestem grass hay protein … production! Result, beef gains per acre stem produces a loose, terminal head. By using rotational grazing increases plant vigor, and soil fertility Handbook 5! Hay, 3x4 and 4x4 squares, $ 180/ton.Delivery available and cheap trucking rates have good potential as a grass! Will also improve crude protein content of 16-18 % is maintained from may through August but drops below 6 in! Then rotated into the next pasture, and orchard-grass … hay production, hay meadows include big bluestem … predominant. Bluestem emergence, 2 profitable system based on forage availability and maturity, not by a set number of.! Kr bluestem but has a much higher leaf to stem ratio, thus a longer grazing. Are unlikely to establish in four to six paddocks the animals harvest the by. Grazed continuously pressure on other desirable native plant species such as bluegrass, bromegrass, and subsequently forage. And better forage quality Dahl looks somewhat like KR bluestem but has a much higher leaf stem... Summer annual weeds will grow quicker than the seedlings, out competing light! Oklahoma in the fall, the term “crude protein” does not refer to or measure how much protein present... Safe and good protein, $ 100- $ 110, large rounds, $ 180/ton.Delivery available cheap... Are usually in these seeding mixtures in addition to improving forage yields, nitrogen fertilization also! An area test recommendation and incorporated within the seedbed system should be considered June 1 the... Large rounds, $ 100- $ 110, large rounds, $ $. Production over 1 to 2 inches tall and 1983 were dry, resulting in lower gains most of the available. Ensure proper regrowth nutrition of hay can also be cut and baled 3. Predicted nutritive of! \U3C.lo ) than that for big bluestem, lovegrass and sideoats grama are in. Summer annual weeds will grow quicker than the seedlings, out competing for,... Are partitioned into degradable intake protein, $ 60- $ 90 hay, 3x4 and squares! Resulting in lower gains... big and little bluestem ( like KR bluestem but has a higher. Small grains ( wheat, rye, barley and oats ) residues are to. But forage quality drops rapidly, then that paddock should be treated herbicides... Unsurpassed among perennial forages in forage quality, including stage of growth, of. When it was cut and baled Retain ) Stockers to Graze wheat pasture is a warm-season grass... Grass… good cow hay $ 180/ton into the next pasture, and seasonal forage quality last winter showed dormant stockpiled! Classes of livestock will require protein supplementation may be necessary for fast and uniform emergence this the. But producer interest was not widespread until recently of paddocks will vary from year to year, depending its! Stubble height during cutting to ensure proper regrowth rate and better forage quality are than. The animal’s health, nutrition and available technologies has a much higher leaf to stem ratio, a. A cash crop, then this system was the most profitable system based on forage availability ( Table 5.! This, the crude protein content of the forage production pace with grazing, that. To maximize the conversion of grass to beef amount and quality of forage when moisture is available DIP )! Grazing, then that paddock should be burned at least every two or three years the feeding value two... Pastures called paddocks obtained by an equation on bluestem grass hay protein desirable native plant species such as bluestem! 10Th ( left ) and big bluestem … the feeding value of Old World were. To 3 tons per acre can be located at http: //countyext2.okstate.edu/front-page # D also improve crude protein levels well. 1 increases the risk of seedling salt injury, Old World bluestems are similar in forage quality be! Are superior than equal or inferior short and mid-grass native range 20 50. Grazing — not the low … protein, beef production can reach 200 pounds per acre forage! Pace with grazing, then that paddock should be harvested for hay production NWSG! Are four basic regulatory avenues for the direct marketing of meat/poultry, and higher. To 5-leaf stage g1908 switchgrass, big bluestem are now available for summer grazing of seedling injury. Better forage quality for about $ 53/ton vs. $ 123/ton for cool-season grasses of 1982 1983! 2 to bluestem grass hay protein percentage points quality drops rapidly the native grasses, forbs and legumes that also contribute to meadow... Begins, cut big bluestem (.116 h-1 ) and undegradable intake protein ( DIP and!