), Hand­book of Reading Research (vol 2., pp. However, as one moves along the continuum of literacy learning, what is … The reason is that none of these has been shown by research to improve achievement for children across the grades. This is a piece I wrote for my teachers and principals in Chicago awhile back, to give them a sense of the essential direction that instruction needs to take. Writing is the final component, consisting of students’ learning to compose their own texts effectively for a variety of purposes. He studies the teaching of reading and writing across all ages and abilities. This framework is consistent with several syntheses of reading research such as the National Reading Panel Report (2000), the Prevention of Reading Difficulties (1998), and Becoming a Nation of Readers (1984), as well as local school evaluation studies such as those conducted by the Chicago School Research Consortium. of a book entitled Developing Literacy in Second Language Learners (August & Shanahan, 2006). Teachers and principals are cautioned against expending daily instructional time on activities that research has shown to be ineffective for literacy improvement (though they can still use such activities as long as they do not reduce the amount of reading and writing instruction), but teachers are free to experiment with activities that have not yet been researched. Fluency. What Kind of Early Reading Intervention Should We Provide? Dr. Shanahan: That you can provide young children with supports for their literacy learning from the very beginning. He was inducted to the Reading Hall of Fame in 2007, and is a former first-grade teacher. He studies the teaching of reading and writing across all ages and abilities. Students need to be taught to understand text independently. It seems there is currently a focus on intervention solely for the word recognition side in the early grades. National Assessment of Educational Progress. Instruction in reading within social studies, science, and mathematics can count, too. “ Disciplinary literacy refers to the shared ways of reading, writing, thinking, and reasoning within academic fields (Moje, 2007; Shanahan & Shanahan, 2008). Teacher questions: Entire school faculties, not just reading teachers, need to teach using the Framework. They are, likewise, less likely to receive well balanced instruction that addresses all of these key areas of concern, and there are likely to be fewer supports for continuity and ongoing assessment. The panel in their report (NRP, 2000) found that instruction in three of the framework categories—word knowledge (including phonics, phonemic awareness, and word meaning), fluency, comprehension—made a clear difference in reading achievement for elementary and secondary level students, and the fourth category of the framework—writing—has been shown to be effective as well in previous research syntheses (Tierney & Shanahan, 1991). Beginning in Kindergarten and continuing for about three years, children should receive daily phonics instruction. Read Aloud: Rate your current level of implementation for each of the following elements of a Read Aloud lesson. What is needed is sound teaching, sound supervision, and lots of it. The district’s current assessment model pretty much excludes them any assessment of language comprehension. If a student is fluent with a particular text, the teacher has two choices. The book’s stated purpose was to “synthesize research on the education of language-minority children and youth with respect to their attainment of literacy, and to produce a comprehensive report evaluating and synthesizing this literature” (p. xiv). Recently, the National Reading Panel was appointed to inform the U.S. Congress about the implications of reading research for the teaching of reading. NAEP 1998 Reading Report Card. Lets' Be Charitable to Literacy. Copyright © 2020 Shanahan on Literacy. It does not require the use of specific instructional methods or activities. Accordingly, the Chicago Reading Framework includes four basic categories, or components, of instruction—word knowledge, fluency, comprehension, and writing. All rights reserved. He was inducted to the Reading Hall of Fame in 2007, and is a former first-grade teacher. Feel free to contact him. Read more For example, early word instruction centers on phonemic awareness, phonics, and sight vocabulary, but as children accomplish these, the emphasis switches to the study of word meanings throughout the higher grades. The Chicago Reading Framework emerged from work that I have done in schools during the past eight years. Reading-writing relationships: Proc­esses, transac­tions, out­ comes. Methods texts and other ancillary publications cite its importance, but say almost nothing about how to use or manage instructional time in reading. Second, this approach tries to build upon and take advantage of our current professional knowledge and strengths. Baumann, J., and Hoffman, J. Cunningham, P. M. (1991). Put your money where your love is. However, until such support is available, there is no reason not to provide children with sufficient amounts of instruction devoted to these key areas of development. Principals need to be able to access this type of information as well so that they better support their teachers’ efforts. Students need to know how to write compositions that are appropriately elaborated, focused on a single topic, organized clearly, and that reflect proper mechanics, usage, grammar, and spelling. Reading Research Quarterly. The Colorado Literacy Framework issues from the mission of the Colorado Department of Education (CDE) to “provide all Colorado children equal access to quality, thorough, uniform, well-rounded educational opportunities in a safe, civil environment,” and the vision that “all children in Colorado Timothy Shanahan is one of the world’s premier literacy educators. This ensures that students will receive instruction in all of the essential parts of reading, but that teachers will not be unduly constrained by a lockstep format that restricts creativity and engagement and that does not permit the flexibility necessary to accommodate to the demands of real classroom settings. Children need to know how to alter their voice and message to meet the needs of an audience, and they need instruction in how to write text for themselves, for others who share much information with them, and for those audiences at a greater distance of time and space and shared knowledge (such as writing for publication). Read more I have used this framework as a consultant when guiding others to improve achievement, and I used it myself as director of reading of the Chicago Public Schools. And we are not just talking about improving reading test scores, at least not directly. shanahan and shanahan . He was inducted to the Reading Hall of Fame in 2007, and is a former first-grade teacher. These criteria, applied together, suggested Word Knowledge, Fluency, Comprehension, and Writing as four related, yet separable components of literacy growth that are amenable to teaching, and that when taught, are likely to lead to higher reading achievement. Supporting Disciplinary Literacy in the Elementary Grades Although much of the literature on disciplinary literacy has focused on adolescent learn-ers (Fang & Schleppegrell, 2010; Moje, 2015; T. Shanahan & Shanahan, 2008), recently scholars have argued that if we seek to … He was inducted to the Reading Hall of Fame in 2007, and is a former first-grade teacher. The Chicago Reading Initiative will eventually provide schools with improved support for ongoing assessment in the four instructional areas to help teachers to improve their teaching, as well as to improve our own monitoring of your success. Children need to know how to retell events (narrative writing), explain and analyze information (exposition), and argue a position (persuasion), and our instruction should show them how to do these effectively. If a teacher is teaching sight vocabulary, she needs to know whether children are learning the words that are being taught. Children need to be taught how to comprehend effectively. Dr. Shanahan is an internationally recognized professor of urban education and reading researcher who has extensive experience with children in inner-city schools and children with special needs. Effective vocabulary instruction also builds in a substantial amount of review. The Framework treats all levels of instruction as being important to students’ development. Web Development by Dog and Rooster, Inc. In R-TFI: “School-Wide Reading Model” • Multi-tiered structures encompassing: (1) systems to address the continuum of reading needs across the student body, As a result, there has been a growing ... literacy practices appropriately to match the specific academic social contexts and intellectual The piling up of resources at these points is likely not the best way to build effective programs for children. The Common Core State Standards are explicit in requiring teachers to teach the literacy of science, literature, and history, and even states that are not part of Common Core (such as Texas) are making this shift as well. He was inducted to the Reading Hall of Fame in 2007, and is a former first-grade teacher. ), and learning to read and write simultaneously can give children an advantage. Dr. Shanahan is an internationally recognized professor of urban education and reading researcher who has extensive experience with children in inner-city schools and children with special needs. Each year, Shanahan on Literacy identifies the highest ranked charities that support book distribution and other literacy-oriented initiatives. Surveys show that the average elementary teacher provides only about 55 minutes per day of direct reading and language arts instruction using activities that research indicates have much possibility of improving reading achievement (Baumann & Hoffman, 1999). Dr. Shanahan is an internationally recognized professor of urban education and reading researcher who has extensive experience with children in inner-city schools and children with special needs. Yes, you’re correct that my framework focuses on the teaching of phonological awareness, decoding/spelling, vocabulary, oral reading fluency, reading comprehension, and writing. Read more. All rights reserved. It is essential that schools offer substantial amounts of reading and writing instruction. Our goal should not be to have higher test scores, but to teach children to read so well that their test scores reflect the improvement. Let’s start using that knowledge immediately to help Chicago children become better readers. This premise is not just a wishful hope—principals and teachers, including some in Chicago, already have used this model to improve reading at their schools. Read more. (c) It was required that studies demonstrate the combinability of the four components by showing that various measurements of each component correlated positively and significantly with the other components and with overall reading achievement. The Chicago Reading Framework starts from the premise that effective school reading instruction can teach most children to read. As with phonics and phonemic awareness instruction, a wide range of vocabulary methods or materials can work successfully. The research is clear: Many programs and materials work and there is not one way to successfully teach reading. The Chicago Reading Framework should help to establish continuity, or connectedness, across teachers at all grade levels, and from all aspects of a school or district instructional program. Teachers can use many word lists to guide their focus here including the Dolch list, Fry list, or Cunningham’s word list. Each discipline has unique ways of asking questions and solving problems. Students need to punctuation and pause appropriately so that the text sounds like language. Writing should teach children to write for a variety of purposes and audiences, using strategies and actions that will allow them to solve various problems of writing. In another example, initial instruction might place greater emphasis on literary (narrative) reading or writing as part of instruction in comprehension or composing, but this emphasis shifts to a greater focus on studying and composing expository or explanatory content texts as students get older. Phonemic awareness instruction (teaching children to hear and manipulate the separable sounds in words) should be part of the focus of reading instruction in the preschool and kindergarten years. Balanced Literacy Self-Assessment Tulsa Public Schools Office of Curriculum & Instruction . Studies clearly show that increases in academic learning time can improve reading achievement (Rosenshine & Stevens, 1984); however, with the exception of Cunningham’s (1991) Four-Block Plan which addresses the needs of beginning readers, teacher education materials have been virtually silent on the use of time in reading instruction. (2000). There are also a plethora of techniques that can be used by kids to think about text more effectively. 1. Yes, you’re correct that my framework focuses on the teaching of phonological awareness, decoding/spelling, vocabulary, oral reading fluency, reading comprehension, and writing. Second, we teach children how text is organized or structured and how to use these organizational plans to remember information from text more effectively. The Chicago Reading Initiative will provide professional development in all four areas for teachers and principals. First, it has been successful in helping many schools improve reading achievement. Spelling instruction is an important part of word teaching, too. It is the power to work and to provide for oneself and for one’s family; the power to participate in the civic and social life of our society; the power to learn; the power to pursue happiness. 246-280). The compositions that children develop should be meaningful and effective. In other words, we will strive for greater continuity and consistency in the future, but we will not do this through arbitrary mandates from the top. Children need to be able to write their own texts as well as being able to read what others have written. First, the Framework is not a program, per se. Similarly, students need to know about various ways that expository texts are organized (such as problem-solution, cause-effect, comparison-contrast), including knowing that particular types of information will be provided in particular texts. Phonics instruction should provide children with three kinds of knowledge: they should learn the letter names and sounds; they should learn how to read many of the common spelling patterns in the language (i.e., eat, ane, tion, ing); and, they should learn to use this information to decode new words and to spell words (that means reading practice should be part of the phonics instruction). Timothy Shanahan is one of the world’s premier literacy educators. Sometimes I am asked why a particular item is not included in this system: formal grammar instruction, language transition work for second language students, free reading time, teacher reading, and so on. Teachers and principals must be aware of how well their children are learning their lessons so that they can make the appropriate and necessary adjustments along the way. Reading and writing depend on much of the same information (including knowledge of spelling patterns, text organization, vocabulary, etc. We need to maximize our efforts across the entire system since reading development is essential for student success in academic areas such as science, history, and mathematics, as well as for their future participation in society. National Reading Panel. Finally, it is essential that all of us remember that students benefit from comprehension instruction—not just practice. Students who are fluent can usually read a text with only about one mistake per hundred words, and they can read the text smoothly and quickly. Should We Alter the Reading Benchmarks Because of the Pandemic. National and international charities that support literacy that receive high Charity Navigator ratings. reading. Feel free to contact him. Second, if the teacher thinks the student should be working in more difficult materials, then he or she can have the child practice fluency in more difficult texts, including in social studies or science books. For reading narratives, children need to learn about plot structure (including characters, problems, solutions, outcomes, etc.). In particular, Fitzgerald and Shanahan (2000) propose that four kinds of knowledge provide the foundation for reading and writing development: (1) meta-knowledge, or understanding the purposes of reading and writing and being able to consciously monitor The Framework requires that classroom teachers emphasize equally each of these four aspects in their reading instruction. 1. Many teachers give students reading assignments that require the answering of questions, but such practice is insufficient. There are many ways that schools can ensure continuity. In the coming days, months, and years, we will be providing resources to help you to use the Framework most effectively. Although fluency refers to both silent and oral reading, the research suggests that oral reading instruction is most effective for developing this ability in students. Copyright © 2020 Shanahan on Literacy. Powerful reading instruction is longitudinal. Here are links to some of Tim’s favorite literacy resources. Engaging in disciplinary literacy learning includes students not only gaining knowledge of a particular However, research is clear that there is no magic bullet. What books about literacy does Tim recommend? That kind of improvement is best accomplished through an emphasis on reading instruction rather than on better test preparation and the like. We’ll refine the quality of what we do as we proceed, but for now it is time to get started. But not oral language. As teachers and parents we know that the literacy we strive to provide cannot be accomplished alone—we need to work together, and therefore we must be saved by love. But not oral language. Literacy expert Timothy Shanahan shares best practices for teaching reading and writing. Continuity can be accomplished through teachers arriving at a set of social agreements or shared, specific curricular goals including a clear specification of which grade levels will take responsibility for teaching particular content. As children get older, and the reading demands get more challenging and more disciplinary, instruction needs to show them what kinds of information to seek when they are reading history or science or mathematics or literature. He studies reading and writing across all ages and abilities. Classroom schedules are complex and reading instruction can be provided throughout the day. Literacy expert Timothy Shanahan shares best practices for teaching reading and writing. The explanation is that most students who struggle, struggle with decoding, and I of course agree. Thank you for a great article. Literacy expert Timothy Shanahan shares best practices for teaching reading and writing. However, I would add that many of those also struggle with language comprehension, with language development deficits that are measurable and observationally apparent in conversation with them as preschoolers, kindergartners, and first graders. (1999.) Consequently, teachers are left to figure out on their own how much time to spend on reading instruction or how to apportion instructional time among the various components of reading. Should schools lower grade level benchmark readin... Tim works with various agencies and publishers on a myriad of projects aimed at improving literacy. Of course, some approaches are likely to be more successful than others. It builds quality upon quality, across classes, grade levels, and schools—and it does so across the complexity of program offerings that most schools provide (Title programs, special education, preschool, after school, etc.). Is there a document I can download that contains all these ideas? Multimethod, multilevel literacy instruction in first grade. He studies the teaching of reading and writing across all ages and abilities. The best instructional efforts require students to use the vocabulary in a wide variety of ways (speaking, listening, reading, writing), and they require students to analyze and explore rich definitions of the words and their relationships with other words. The idea is to provide all students with the maximum opportunity to learn to read and write while maintaining adequate amounts of time to teach math, science, history/social studies, and other school subjects. A natural tendency of teachers and principals is to delay implementation until they feel that they completely understand the framework. Time allotment decisions are especially difficult for upper grade teachers because of departmentalization. Teachers should rely on what they already know to begin addressing children’s reading needs, and over time—if appropriate—they will be guided to improve upon their current efforts. Each year, Shanahan on Literacy identifies the highest ranked charities that support book distribution and other literacy-oriented initiatives. And yet, in too many schools and classrooms, these basics are sometimes ignored. Teaching Disciplinary Literacy to Adolescents shanahan and shanahan literacy learning (e.g., phonics, phonological awareness, sight vocabulary) are entailed in virtually all reading tasks (Rayner & Pollatsek, 1994). 1 Balanced Literacy Self- Assessment . Such knowledge will allow the teacher to slow down or speed up or to intensify the effort. Shanahan's answer I feel your pain. Fluency refers to the ability to read a text with sufficient speed, accuracy, and expression. New York: Longman. I vividly remember when “experts” (without data) were claiming that either young children would not be ready to benefit from such teaching or that such teaching would do harm. Educational researchers have begun to use the term disciplinary literacy ( Shanahan and Shanahan 2014) to refer to the ways in which students learn to read, write, and communicate in content-area classes, as budding historians, mathematicians, and scientists. From clinic to classroom: A case study of a literacy specialist examining teacher learning and instructional decision making. Chicago Public School teachers know a lot. It should help students to spell in a conventional way, and it can provide them with an opportunity to think systematically about how words are structured. The project started in one low income, inner city school and has now grown to more than 200 schools throughout Illinois and around the United States. Disciplinary literacy refers to the ways of reading, writing, thinking, and reasoning within academic fields (Moje, 2007;Shanahan & Shanahan, 2008. Teachers can organize this 2–3 hour time allotment in many ways. Chicago children need to do better in reading and the past successes of this framework—and the success of similar efforts elsewhere—holds great promise for our children. Another way to ensure that we have an effective reading program is to provide appropriate assessment. So, for example, studies had to show that vocabulary instruction (a part of word knowledge) led to better vocabulary growth or that fluency instruction led to more fluent reading. These four categories are all equally important across the various grade levels, but the emphasis within categories shifts somewhat over time. In P. D. Pearson, R. Barr, M. Kamil, and P. Mosenthal (Eds. For several years, I have used a basic framework for guiding my action in the public schools. Research can tell us whether particular approaches are likely to be successful based on how well they have succeeded in the past, and it can give us sound guidance with regard to how to implement programs more successfully. Dr. Shanahan is an internationally recognized professor of urban education and reading researcher who has extensive experience with children in inner-city schools and children with special needs. We encourage principals and faculties to engage in planning and decision-making that will ensure greater continuity across the grade levels. First, we teach children to seek particular types of information. Children who struggle tend to receive less instruction than their more successful peers. Text organizations vary greatly across narrative and expository text. (e) Finally, it was required that developmental studies reveal different growth curves for each category. There is no nobler act than to teach someone to read. That means that teachers should devote approximately one-quarter of the instructional time to each of these areas of development. 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